IMPACT BY GLOBALISATION ON LANGUAGES AND LITERATURE.
Smt Nagashree Arun.
Department of English
CITY COLLEGE, Jaynagar
“Globalization” is a social process, and is readily increasing in today’s world, concentrating more in the social and economic worlds. This increase in globalization has many effects on language, both positive and negative. Although linguistic aspects of globalisation have not received many aspects as other fields, the global face of language is slowly changing, in turn effecting the growth of languages. These effects on language in turn affect the culture of the language in many ways. The impact can either allow languages to speed and dominate or cease to exist.
Language and culture are like contemporaries. Language is in a sense the substance of culture. They serve as an important symbol of social structures, enabling different groups of people to know what ethnic groups they belong to, and what common heritage they share. Without a language, people would lose their cultural as well as geographical identity. In turn language is the bonding force amongst the social structures.
Even today, linguists are not able to give an acute report on the total count of World languages. For them there are around 6,500 different natural languages. The count would exceed 10,000 if considered slangs and dialects of the native languages. Out of these around 6% of them account for the speech of more than half the world’s population, like Mandarin Chinese, Spanish, Hindi, French, Bengali, Portuguese, Russian, German, Japanese, Arabic, and English. And for about 2000 languages there are around a very limited speakers, fewer than 5000. And around 85% of the world population are well versed in two or more languages.
English is distinguished from other languages by having very significant numbers of non-native speakers, thus making it language most affected by globalization. It’s clear that globalization is making English especially important not just in universities, but in areas such as computing, diplomacy, medicine, shipping, and entertainment.
When we think of global forms of entertainment, we immediately think of the Internet, social media, movies, or television shows. But, contrary to popular belief, literature also holds an important place in the flow of entertainment. Books today have crossed socio cultural boundaries and borders creating awareness and connecting people worldwide through shared information. Global literature is not a new concept. As new ways emerge of delivering literature to readers worldwide, many scholars are examining the importance of translations on literature, the impact that literature has on culture, and the ways that cultures can transform books. World literature can be an amazing tool for analyzing globalization because it provides a wonderful example of the ways that information is shared across languages and cultures.
The study of world literature is a powerful tool for global studies because it encompasses so many themes that are important to understanding globalization. World literature can show us how information is shared between cultures and nations. It provides insight into how cultural artefacts are transformed as they traverse languages and boundaries. It also can help us to understand the ways that new media technologies could be facilitating globalization by creating a public space for the transmission of literature and other information across the globe.
Globalisation definitely affects culture and literature… A person in India can read Dostoyevski or Chekhov in his own language and vice-versa – a Russian student can look up Indian authors on the internet. Another huge progression is online studying. This is opening new doors and opportunities for students globally.
In Asiatic and African countries, globalisation is always associated with, Westernisation and Modernisation. Following this idea globalization is changing the social approach towards the existent cultures and local languages. Adapting western ideologies in contradiction to local cultures or introducing the local cultural flavours globally in English have become the trend.
Aravinda Adiga’s The White Tiger was published in 2008, and before, at the end of that year, it had made its author famous throughout world. This 2008 Booker Prize winner novel studies the contrast between India’s rise as a modern global economic giant and the protagonist, Balram, who comes from rural poverty background. Past six decades have witnessed changes in Indian society, and these changes, many of which are for the better, have overturned the traditional and cultural hierarchies, showcasing the other world that India is more than the land of snake charmers and elephants.
The impact of globalization on language and literature is quite significant. As ideas and beliefs are spread to more parts of the world through information technology and wider access, what has been traditionally defined as “culture” begins to undergo change as newer understandings are integrated into traditional conceptions. This creates a new vision of what culture envelops and how literature is reflected. With globalization, it is nearly impossible to stop the spread of ideas, for its very nature brings to light the inter-connectivity of all individuals. Due to this, the changing conception of literature and culture is almost inevitable in my mind.
Languages are the essential medium in which the ability to communicate across culture develops. Knowledge of one or several languages enables us to perceive new horizons, to think globally, and to increase our understanding of ourselves and of our neighbours. Languages are, then, the very lifeline of globalization; without language, there would be no globalization; and vice versa, without globalization, there would be no growth of world languages.